first thing you must understand is that editing is NOT "cutting out the
bad parts" as many people assume. Rather
is the process of assembling a program from the ground upóby artfully
blending images and sound to create a coherent whole."
Editing techniques are remarkably powerful
, as they direct the viewer's
perception of what the message is within the story.
of editing can twist the truth or support reality. In many cases, it is
the editing process that empowers the statement. "The medium is the
message" in many cases as the result of editing. The selection and arrangement of clips, whether they are shot
at the same time or not; or even if they are related or not, make a story and
certainly the meaning and affect of that story.
- Sequence is simply a collection of shots,
perhaps gathered at
different times and stitched together so that they seem to flow.
- Continuity refers to the smoothness of the flow from clip
occurs when you have natural or smooth
is matching the cut and the activity in an
action sequence at a specific point of the movement.
is when you have 2 very similar cuts in sequence
that appear abrupt due to poor continuity. Perhaps a car or even a
body part appears in one clip but not the other.
- Matched screen direction is when you use
degree rule" and keep all shot on the same side of the subject
- Opposing screen direction is when you have views from
both (left and right) sides of the subject.
- Into frame or out of frame refers to moving
objects that are permitted to enter or exit (usually a still) frame.
- "Marrying" picture and
sound means linking the video to the narration.
Editing rules of thumb:
- Begin a sequence with a wide shot.
- Sequential shots should gradually get tighter.
- If you have a long sequence and you want to finish with a wide
shot to re-establish the the viewer, use a different angle than the
- Cut an action during the movement, at the same point of the
is, Always cut the action in the
middle of the action, not before or afterwards.
- Avoid jump cuts by either zooming in on (preferably) the second
shot, or break the to shots with something else, like they do in
news interview or live coverage's. (Nodding commentator)
- Smoother continuity with moving objects can be obtained by
allowing the moving object to enter or exit the frame. (into
frame or out of frame)
- Ensure that your screen direction remains consistent by using
the 180 degree rule ( keep your shots within 180 degree ark or on
the same side of the action or moving object.
- If you wish to create the tension and opposition, you can use
opposing screen direction.
- Importantly, when marrying sound
and picture, the narration should NEVER describe the
possibly remedy a jump shot
- You may simply keep the sound rolling
and slip in another visual in between the 2 shots
in a news clip you may have to throw in a picture of the
subject, or a map between the edited version of someone talking, or if it was
an interview perhaps show the reporter responding to the main clips.
You could use a dissolve transition to soften the sudden jump and/or
allude to the passing of time
Editing 2 very similar clips together usually causes a jump shot.
The above helps, but you could also make the second shot appear more
radically different so that it appears as a close up by simply
zooming in on the subject.
A solution to smoothen out 2, not so similar clips in
sequence, might also be to zoom in and crop. You could crop out the portion of the clip
out causing the jump using the editing software.
if someone's hand is holding something or in one position
at the end of the first clip and not the same at the beginning of
the second; perhaps zoom in and crop out the hand in the second. You
could even make the second clip into 2 clips. Make the first part
some kind of close up (allowing enough time to pass to flatten
the jump) and finish with the original shot.
- The best way to summarize the editing process is:
- In the Wisconsin Badgers football scene, how did the video
photographer(s) gather all four shots.
- Editing together a collection of shots so that they seem to flow
in real time is called creating a
- What is the minimum number of shots necessary to create a
- Generally, sequences should start with
- "Wide shots" answer what question for the audience?
- Close-ups provide:
- The industry synonym for a closer shot is "a(n)
- In a particular sequence you are editing together a close-up and
a wide shot of a man entering a door. You want to make sure the door
is in the same position in both shots. What you are trying to
accomplish is commonly called:
- In a particular sequence, you have a wide shot of a man with a
hammer striking a nail. You also have a close-up shot of exactly the
same action. If you were editing the sequence, where would be the
best place for the edit?
- Editing together two very similar shots is a bad thing called
- What happens if you violate the 180 Degree Rule?
- Placing an edit AFTER a subject has left the frame or BEFORE she
enters the frame solves what problem?
1. You match screen (what?), when you use "the 180 degree rule".
7. A collection of shots, gathered a different times that are put together so they
seem to flow.
8. The kind of room or more space on the screen left in the direction of the action
so that it appears to have a place to go.
10. The kind of room or space between the subject's face and the edge of the screen.
11. The type of cut that insures natural or smooth continual flow.
12. The left-to-right or right-to-left movement of the camera.
13. Linking the video to the narration.
2. Another name for a wide shot.
3. The kind of screen direction when you have views from both (left and right) sides
of the subject.
4. A waist-up shot of a person.
5. The type of cut when you have 2 very similar clips in sequence that appear abrupt
due to poor continuity.
6. The term given to the space above the subject's head.
9. The smoothness of the flow from clip to clip.