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Sound Television Graphics Act 3 Pretest <<< This is the guide for this section.

Any two-dimensional image, which would include paintings, posters, signs, computer generated images etc, displayed on screen is what we refer to as a "graphic". Two dimensional (2D) graphics only have height x Width. It may be any combination of photos, clipart, text and/or symbols. So if you add a title, subscript or perhaps an arrow pointing at something on an image on your screen, your are adding graphics. Sport and news are continuously sliding and/or popping in graphic images to give visuals while a commentator  delivers information. Perhaps it is updates at the bottom of the screen while you watch a game or an ad sneaking in.

Controlling factors when using graphics:

Although this may look OK, it may not be so clear on a week signal or old screen

Changing the colour of the font might help

Bold font, and/or  change font type should improve results  . Adding a drop shadow should make a big difference. Super impose your text over a semitransparent background .

otherwise you might get something like   or    instead of 

" A "super" is when viewers see one image (superimposed) on top of another. For example, it is common to see an interview subject's name appear on screen (via a super) when they talk. While a "key" is technically different from a super;  "Key" and "Super" are used interchangeably at many facilities and we will thus refer to them as being the same thing. When we use a semitransparent background to better highlight text, best practice uses a colour from the image. When you lower the opacity (increase transparency) of the overlay, you allow the image in the background to be less interrupted.

A"chroma key" is a special effect or type of key you see everyday when you watch the weather. Maps are sort of super imposed behind the weather person. Two images are placed over each other. The weather forecaster stands in front of a big green screen (It used to be solid blue or green) and a computer deletes that colour from that top layer. Because, green is not a natural pigment in people's skin, if you delete it (it being the green screen) what the viewer sees is the image behind or what the top image was covering. Green screening is an easy way that you can appear to be on the moon for example. If you have a shot of whatever, wherever, you can green screen yourself there.

Motion graphics
make simple graphics begin to come alive by appearing to move. Most of
the motion graphics you see on television today are "2D". In short, 2D motion graphics are images that are created on a computer and then blended in a graphics program. Simple motion graphics move left or right, get bigger or smaller, fade in or out etc. Typically a number of different graphics are layered on screen at once--with each graphic moving in a different direction! The CBC News sample on the right, if being viewed on a TV screen, would likely have the text side as a simple 2D (still) graphic, while the bluish shapes (layered separately) in the background would be constantly moving and/or changing shapes and size.


This map illustrats the path that Columus is believed to have taken when he founded the new world through motion graphics.Generally, any form of movement is called "animation." Most people make the connection with animation  to Disney style cartoons. But, technically any type of graphic movement fits the definition of animation. So, 2D motion graphics are the most basic form of animation.


The 2D motion graphic of the plane appearing to be landing in a desert is generated by having the desert panning left to right, while the image of the plane is changing size and position as if it were approaching a runway.  Notice that you only see the plane in one position. For all intensive purposes to be able to distinguish at what point an animation is more than a simple 2D motion graphic, we will identify a motion graphic as an animation when the perceived motion is the result of interventions or techniques that involve more than repositioning and distorting the shape and size of two dimensional images. So, while we call the image of the plane apparently approaching a runway as a motion graphic, the cartoon of the biplane flying across the sky (technically a motion graphic) would more likely be identified as an animation because the prop appears to be turning by intermittingly introducing images of the prop in different positions as it flies by.

To create a graphic that allows you to see it from more than one vantage point, or for you see it change positions, you'll need to use another category of motion graphics software. 3D graphics add a third dimension to your image. Width x Height x Depth. Although you are visualizing this 3rd dimension on a 2D screen. you perceive to see the added Depth as things appear to realistically spin and move about in a believable fashion like the plane to the left.
3D (computer generated) graphics allow's toys to come to life like in Toy Story.

Davis Spielberg to bring dinosaurs to life in Jurassic Park and put them into scenes with live actors. When you combine 3D (or 2D) graphics with real images, that's called "compositing." Simple composting like the image on the right, is when you drop a clipart, or a cropped 2D photo over a 3D image. Remember that 2D images don't change position, they have a single perspective. 3D images allow you to change position or your subject to do show more than one side, no matter how slight. Computers gave modern film makers the power to composite live footage and graphics to an unbelievable believable level. That is why it is so capturing when you see Bilbo Baggins talking to a super scary dragon. It is just so realistic as un real as it is.

The next are a few definitions pertain to the previous and final section:

Aspect ratio - # of units high X # of units Wide. If you have a tall graphic, how do you portray it on your screen. If you don't want to crop or distort your image; you may scroll or keystone the graphic
Resolution - although it is a result of lines/in
, it pertains to a mediums' ability to provide detail.
"safe area." It is the area where it is safe to put graphics, because it's beyond the cropping margin.

 a "super" is when viewers see one image "superimposed"on top of another.

A "transition" is simply the technique you use to get from one shot to the next. Three basic transitions: the cut, the dissolve, and the wipe are most common. On TV, The cut is probably used more than 90% of the time, dissolves 8% and wipes less than 2%. A dissolve is a gradual transition from one shot to another (cross, overlap) Wipes usually are push, slides or swipes). A dissolve transition of one shot to the next in a sequence (as we mentioned in earlier sections) represents a passage of time. Supers are more likely to be cut or wiped in and out.



"CLICK" to open in separate window to test yourself on this section >>>>


1.) Define the following terms:



safe area



2.) Television graphics have three major technical limitations, explain.

3.) When do you use dissolve transitions?

4.) what kind of ratio is there between cuts and dissolves in professional editing?

5.) Explain how a "chroma key works.

6.) What are 3 ways to make hard to read or poorly displayed text more effective?

7.) What is the difference between a "super" and a "key"?

8.) What are the 2 main categories of motion graphics? explain each.

9) What is compositing?

10) What has truly revolutionized the motion graphic world?